viernes, 29 de junio de 2012

Road projects that would encourage urban sprawl

The new airport and the southern route now called 'Via Integration of the Valleys'.
 Building a new airport for Quito, the dilemma of accessibility from the consolidated city to it. One alternative is the construction of the so-called southern route, which crosses the valley at the foot of Tumbaco Ilaló, connecting the new airport Simon Bolivar Avenue. It argues for the construction of this route, which also serve as a connection between the city and the airport, improve motorized access from the populated places of the valley, towards the city of Quito, reducing vehicular conflicts exist.  
We believe that building this road is not suitable for the city, because they mostly aggravate the problems mentioned above in the note "The growth of Quito absurd", because:
- When building new roads and improve accessibility by motorized transport to new areas of the valley, we are encouraging more urban sprawl. The land around these tracks, they become attractive to real estate sectors, because their sales are facilitated by having a "facility" to move to the consolidated city.  
- To facilitate vehicular movement we are also promoting the increase in vehicles. This phenomenon is known as induced demand. The more pathways are created, but will the number of vehicles that will be circular, and in a few years, these "solutions" will become obsolete. The growth rate of the vehicle fleet of Quito is 4-5 times the rate of population growth. In addition, estimates of the municipality, (PMM: Hidalgo Núñez 2008), travel on public transport are declining at an average ratio of 1.2% while transport trips grow particular individual in the same proportion. By 2025, to continue this trend and do nothing to prevent it, 55% of the trips would take place in private transport and 45% in transport. This situation could worsen if the travel distances are greater, as it would in the case of promoting further urban expansion with the construction of these roads through the valleys, in which case the individual transport trips would increase by six times ( with all the impacts on traffic congestion and air pollution), while only two times the mass transport. (PMM: Hidalgo Núñez 2008). Currently, the approximately 450.0000 private vehicles circulating in Quito contribute with 96% of environmental pollution and light vehicles occupy 80% of road space and mobilize only 27% of the population.
- The layout of these roads divides historic districts established in the sector, with high social impact, as the movement of traditional inhabitants, and use changes in land ownership and habitat degradation and loss of the last remnants of communal property. .
In short, the construction of the southern route, besides being the most expensive alternative, for along the route and the number of expropriations to be performed, would have a high social and environmental impact, promote urban sprawl and encourage the use of individual motorized transport, with a consequent increase in vehicles and ecological footprint. In a short time instead of solving the existing problem of traffic congestion, it would worsen.
For all these reasons, the southern route, now called 'Via integration of the valleys' to the airport NO! should be performed.
Other road projects in the valley
In addition to the southern route to the new airport, are disturbing other road projects that directly affect the eastern valleys, and you do not find more justification for them, rather than promoting real estate development and urban sprawl thus all the problems detailed above.
 One of these projects, it is a parallel to Simon Bolivar Avenue and close to it, which comes from Conocoto, through Lumbisí, and apparently its design is on the San Patricio, San Juan de Cumbayá, and Santa Rosa, to continue along the eastern side of Nayón to Zámbiza. We do not know the scale of this road, how many lanes will be, how it will affect the surrounding towns to make a statement on the matter, but we are concerned and we want to know, and a new road between Tumbaco and Kumbaya.
The alternative route Collas
After analyzing all the urban problems that generate the construction of the southern route, and conscious of the need for a fast connection to the city of Quito with the New Airport, we think the best alternative for this is the route from Collas, located north of the city, near the toll Oyacoto, with excellent connections to Simon Bolivar Avenue and the Panamericana North, supplemented in turn by the expansion and improvement of the E35 from the Hummingbird even Cusubamba, which has a excellent access to Highway General Rumiñahui, which would serve as an alternative access to the airport from the south. The way New Airport Collas, should have the character to express a toll profitable enough for its proper maintenance.
We support the construction of this road and we are glad that you have decided to do it and hope to continue in this decision. The route is just 8.5 km Collas and includes design of the two lanes on each side and a bridge of 320 meters. His execution would be swift, has no major impact on society, expropriation are minimal in relation to the southern route, or promote urban sprawl and the estimated cost is $ 55 million, almost a third of what it would take the southern route ( $ 148 million), plus, in the words of the mayor, 70% load from the north of Quito, the concentration of activities, as many companies are in the central north of Quito, the increased travel and attractors travel are in the north center, the largest tourist attractions in the center and north central.
Alternatives to improve traffic in the area, framed by the principles of sustainable mobility
We submit to the authorities with a comprehensive proposal, which can alleviate conflicts caused by vehicular traffic, without having to create new arterial roads in the area and thereby prevent excessive urban sprawl and conflicts caused by it.
  1. Improve public transport system , both intraparroquial as interparochial. Improved transport within the rural parishes, aim to reduce the need for private car use. Avoiding urban sprawl also seeks to reach the same goal. 
  2. Avoid increasing the internal traffic , therefore are not recommended new ways to facilitate the use of private cars and thereby induce greater demand for individual motorized transport and excessive urban expansion. This is the vicious circle of induced demand. As we create more opportunities for private cars, more cars leaving the ring, and these "facilities" become obsolete.   
  3. Using existing roads to distribute traffic . Instead of creating new channels and blood level is proposed for existing roads, local collector, old roads, and connect in some sections to distribute traffic from new development and causing conflicts in the rural population. In the design of these routes of traffic exhaust is recommended to keep it narrow, allowing the slow but steady traffic-road six feet, ten-foot sidewalks on each side where the presence of such warrants, or bounded spaces for pedestrians in unpopulated areas, which together with its characteristics of country road, winding, narrow and straight with no intersections, and also in costs, allow a continuous flow of vehicles, slow and safe, so they can live peacefully pedestrians and vehicles until they leave to an expressway or arterial, similar to the road that links Los Conquistadores with Guápulo Cumbayá.
  4.  Return the character of the Interoceanic expressway, by building steps depressed with two lanes on the oval to Lumbisí climb in the ring at the mouth of the Side Step Cumbayá and at the intersection with the entrance road to San Isidro and Tanda. On the surface leave the crosswalk, with two lanes and bypass slow traffic distribution in a slow and safe, so they can share space pedestrians, cyclists and motor vehicles.
  5.  Continue the existing urban fabric, usually in traditional villages, there is an apple tree layout grid layout. The blocks, of about 80 feet square are developed from the central square. This distance of 80 meters easy walk, and the connection between the different sectors of the population. Currently, when new developments are made, there is no continuity to this path, so breaks are created that impede pedestrian accessibility. It should regulate the orderly growth from population center in the rural parishes, maintaining the original path to where the topography permits, with emphasis on pedestrian circulation. Do not allow the establishment of gated communities that impede pedestrian connectivity.
  6.  Think of the city from the pedestrian , based on such networks to achieve safe and pleasant pedestrian routes linking sites activities, parks, local streets, pedestrian streets, sidewalks dignity, with safe crossings and level. 
  7. Microcentralidades development,  promote the development of the inhabitants of the area without large displacement to avoid dependence on motorized transport. "Urban sprawl not only directly affects our health but is eating green spaces and lungs cleaned before our cities " . (Fresneda 2005) [1] The urban sprawl or dispersion, is considered one of the three major environmental problems in American cities, whose model of oil spill is spreading dangerously in Europe and Asia.
  8.  Standards to prevent growth into rural areas . Must be declared to the rural parishes as low density areas and urban expansion, in which the minimum lot should be of great extension, load factors of soil should be minimal, so that most of the land lie for agricultural land or green spaces, especially in remote areas of the parish center and thus preserve the valleys as environmental reserves and agricultural Quito.  
All these actions require a Special Area Plan , which must involve all stakeholders.
The first part of this note read it in "The growth of Quito absurd"  
[1] attached seriously damage your health. By Carlos Fresneda. The World 11/01/05

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