viernes, 29 de junio de 2012


Book IV. Title VII

Title Seven.  Of the population of the Cities, Towns and villages.

Act first. That new stocks merge with the qualities of this law.

Aviéndose made ​​the discovery by Sea or Land, according to the laws and orders, which treat of him, and chosen the Province and County, any of you people, and the site of the places where they have to hazer new populations, and taken a seat on it, which they are to their implementation, keep the following way.   In coastal site Marsea up healthy and strong, having regard to coat bottom and defense of the port, and if possible not come the Sea to the south, the west, and

in these, and other towns inland, choose the site for which they were vacant and available to us, can deal without perjuizio of the Indians, and natural, or with his consent: and when the plant do Instead, divide it by your plates, streets and plots to line and rule, from the Plaça començando mayoir, and drawing from it the streets to the gates and main roads and open bar dexando therefore, that although the population growth will largely be can always continue and expand in the same way.   Try to have water nearby, and that can lead the people and lands, deriving it, if possible, for better aprovecharle it, and necessarios materials for buildings, land, culture and grass, with which escusarán the hard work and costs, which follow from a distance.,   Do not choose sites for people in high places, through the hassle of the winds, and difficulty of the service and acarreto, shoals or places, they are often sick, fundense in moderately raised, gozen discovered that the winds of the north and south: and whether

huvieren to have land, or slopes, are in the Levante and Poniente: and if not puedieren excuse of the high places, melted in a place where not subject to fogs, haziédo observation of what is most appropriate to the health and accidents, which can offer: and where to build the bank of a river, provide for the population so that the sun coming out, first in the town, than in water.

Act if. That huviendo chosen site, the governor declared if it be city, town, or place, and assi form the Republic.

Selected Earth, Province and Place to be hazer new population, and ascertained the comfort and facilities, which can haver, in whose district the Governor in session, or confinare, declare the People, which has to settle, if it be City, Villa, or Place, and according to that which finds form the Council, and Officers della Republica, so that if huviere be

Metropolitan City, has Iuez vn, with the title of Adelantado, or alcalde mayor, or magistrate, or mayor ordinary that the jurisdició exerça infolidum, and together with the Regiment has the administration of the Republic, two, or three officers of the Royal Exchequer : twelve aldermen, two executores Faithful: two from each parish Iurados: vn Attorney general: Butler vn: vn scrivener of Council, two public Escrivanos: vno Crier more: vn broker market: two goalkeepers, and fi Diocefana, or fufraganea, eight Aldermen and other officials perpetual, to the towns and villages, ordinary Mayor: four aldermen: Alguazil vn, vn of the Council and public scribe: and vn Butler.

IIJ Act.   That the land and proximity is abundant and healthy.

Ordered, that the land and proximity, to be people, chosen as much as possible the most fertile, abundant grass, firewood, timber, materials, water, candy, people

naturally carries, input and output, and have no close gaps, or Pathans in venomous animals are bred or are corruption of ayres, or water.

Law   iiij.   That does not populate Ports, which are not good and necessarios for trade and defense.

Do not choose sites for open Peoples maritime places, because of the danger of pirates in them, and not be so healthy, and because it gives people not to till and cultivate the land, or how well the customs they , except it be where there are some good and major ports, and of these only populate those that may be necessarios for entry, trade and defense of the earth.

Act V. That efforts be found near Rios models, and there's crafts, causing filth.

Porove be of much convenience to merge Peoples Rios near waterways, to have better

tragin and trade, such as maritime.   ordain that blend assi, if the site permits it, and that the solar Butchers, Fishmongers, tanneries, and other offices, causing filth and odor, from gaining access to the Rio Azia, or Sea, with more to be kept clean and sanitary populations.

Vj Act.   That the territory is not taken into Puerto de Mar, or in part, to prejudice.

Term for new territory and population can not be granted or taken by assiento Sea Ports or in part, that at some time may result in perjuizio our Royal Crown, or the Republic, because our will is, that can be reserved for Nos.

Vij Act. That the territory is divided between those who hiziere capitulation, and people, as ordered.

The term and territory, that giveth to resident by capitulation, delivered in the form below.   Take off first things which is necessary for oxide solar and competent people, and they can graze deliessa plenty of cattle, which should have the vezinos, and yet another for both own the place: the rest of the territory and end is made ​​four parts: the vna of them, shall choose, that for which it gives the people obliged to hazer, and the other three are distributed in equal lots for residents.

VIIj Act.   It manufactured the main temple on the site, and disposal, ordering, and other churches and monasteries.

In Mediterranean areas the Temple is not manufactured in the plate thin somewhat distant from it, which is separated from other Any building that does not belong to your comfort and adornment, and because of all parties is seen, and more revered, I quoted something up of soil, so that it

have to go by steps, and between Plaça greater, and Temple will edify the royal houses, council, or board, Customs, and Shipyard, in such away that autorizen the Temple, and did not get pregnant, and if need be can help, and if people whether at sea, so get ready, which is seen leaving the Ocean, and made a defense of the port, pointing solar near him, and not his then Royal Houses that are manufactured and stores on board to own, imposing tribute in moderate algú merchandise: and also on other boards sites less than parish churches and monasteries, where they are convenient.

Act ix.   That site, size, and arrangement of the plate is as ordered.

The Plaça greater, where the population has començar, being Sea coast, is deve hazer the landing at the port, and if it is Mediterranean place in the midst of the population in painting as long, that at

vna least have long and a half times its width, because it will be most suitable for the holidays to horse, and others: his greatness commensurate to the number of vezinos, and having regard to the populations may be increasing, not less that two hundred feet in width, and three hundred long, or more than eight hundred feet long and five hundred and thirty-two wide, and will be medium, and good proportion, if six hundred feet long and four hundred wide : the Plaça out four main streets, vna through each side, and others WITH THESE, two for each corner: the four corners to the four winds look main assi out because streets are not exposed to Plaça the four winds , which will be very inconvenient. All contour and the four main streets, which she has to go out, have websites for the convenience of the tracer, which usually attend, and the eight streets, which are output from the four corners, go free, without being in the portals of form, to make the right with the Plaça azera and street.

Act x.   Form of the streets. 

In cold places are wide streets, and the hot narrow, and where horses huviere agree, that to defend himself on those occasions, be broad, and dilate in the manner aforesaid, seeking, not extending to give at some disadvantage, which be rebuilt because of the disfiguring and damaging to his defense and comfort.

Xj Act.   That reparean by strong solar.

Repartanse.   The lots to the residents by strong, continuing from those corresponding to the plate more, and the rest are for us hazer their mercy to them that he comes to new people, or whatever it will.   And we order that always take the place made ​​the plant, which has founded.

Xij Act.   That does not build houses three hundred Passos round the walls.

We order that near the walls, or ellacadas of new populations, distance of three hundred Passos not build houses, which assi suits our service, security and defense stocks, as is provided in Castles and Fortresses.

Xiij Act.   That point comerente oxide for the People.

The oxides are so competent in distance, if creciere the population, provided there is sufficient space so that people can recreate, and leave cattle without damage hazer.

Xiiij Act.   That brought debessas, and land for themselves.

Haviendo competent amount of land designated for oxide of the population, and growth, in accordance give it provided, indicate such property held the power to hazer

discovery and new population, deheslas, confining with the oxides, where the oxen graze give work, horses, and cattle to the slaughter, and for the ordinary number of other cattle, the villagers have tenr by ordenança, and some good deal more, q is specific to the Cócejo, and restate it in land, to make strong, and many are as solar, which can haver in the population, and if huviere irrigated lands, assimismo become stronger, and distributed in proportion to the first settlers, and others are valdias, so that we do mercy to them that they be new to people: and these lands do you separate the Viceroys parecieren convenient to own Peoples, not the tuvieren, that faith to help pay the salaries of the magistrates, dexando oxides, dehessas, and grass enough, as it is provided and assi executen.

Law xv.   who having sown the people, begin to build.

Lvego, which is made of seed and cattle accommodated in such quantity, and good prevention, with the grace of God our Lord can expect plenty of provisions, starting with care and diligence to establish and build their houses with good foundation and walls, and go apercividos of mud walls, tables, and all other tools and instruments, which are suitable for building briefly, and at little cost.

Xvj Act.   That made ​​the plant, each arm vno tooldo on his land, and made ​​palisades on the board.

Made the plant and distribution of lots, each of the residents vno try assembling your awning, and persuade them to captains that will lead to the other provisions: or made with wood and ramadas ranches where you can pick up, and all with the greatest diligence and promptness make palisades and trenches at zero of the plate, because the Indians recivan damage.

Xvij Act.   That the houses are available under this Act.

Villagers dsipongan, that the land, buildings and houses are of vna way, for the adornment of the population, and to enjoy North winds at noon, vniendolos, to serve as a defense against those who fuerça estorvar or as they will infest , and to ensure that every house can have their horses and beasts of fervicio, with yards and yards, and the greater width, as may be possible, that enjoy health and cleanliness.

Xviij Act.   That says that people will go for new residents of Cologne, and as has been described.

Ordered, that when it beareth any City Colony, have the obligation and Regiment hazer Iusticia describe to the Council scrivener people who may wish to go to hazer new population, admitting to all

married people, children and descendants of settlers from where huviere out, not having solar or pasture land and labor, and excluding the tuvieren because depopulation is not what is already populated.

Law xix.   That the people are elected Iusticia and Regiment, and recorded flows.

Cvmplido the number of those who will go to people, they choose the most able Iusticia and Regiment, and each record vno flow, you have to go to use the new population.

Law xx.   Let's try assientos ecution of facts to people.

Haviendose assiento taken to new population, by way of Cologne, Advancement, City Hall, township, village, or place, the Council, and it scared huvieren in the Indies, not met with

haver taken and made alsiento and always Vayá governando, and order as put into execution, and take account of what it may be working.

Xxj Act.   That the Governor and Iustica enforce the villagers assientos

We order that the Governor and the People Iusticia, which again will resettle, ex officio, or to motion of a party, to enforce the assientos by all who are bound by new populations with much diligence and care, and the Aldermen, and Attorneys ask Council with the request against the people, than to the plaços that is required huvieren not met, they are compelled by law rigorously carried out as to which capitulated, and q the Iuezes proceed against anfentes, and be imprisoned populations, q requisitions ships against abide in other jurisdictions, and all the Insticias met, the penalty of our mercy.

Xxij Act.   That says that people have to apply the work of the population.

The faithful executores and Alarifes, and people who diputare the Governor, be careful to see how it fulfills the orders, and all hurry up the work and building for an end to the population soon.

Xxiij Act.   impodieren That if the natural population can be persuaded to peace, and the villagers continue.

If the natives as they will defend the new population, are given to understand that the intention of settling there, is to teach them to know God and his   holy law, by the qual is saved, and make friends with them and teach them to live politically, not to hazerles no harm, nor take away their haciendas, And so I can be persuaded by gentle means, ed intervention of Religious and secular clergy, and others, that diputare the Governor, making use of interpreters, and

trying by all means good possibles, that the population is made with peace and cósentimiento, and if you have not consents, haviendoles required, according to the law 9. TITLE EDIT. 4. Libro3 residents do their population, irrespective of whatever aprticular of the Indians, and no more perjuizio hazerles.

Xj Act.   That the Governors do not oblige the aldermen, or à vezinos get permission to go to his tent.

Vezinos Porqve some aldermen and the Cities have haciendas, and stays within in the jurisdiction, and not more than four distando, or six leagues, some Governors prevent them from going to them without special license of you, who receive grievance.   We sent to the Governors , Lieutenants, and Iusticias, that these departures and absences, SIEDO short, do not put serious cause impairment without force.

Xij Act.   That the composition of the grocery stores, and their contribution, will save the provisions.

Forasmuch haviendose sent by us, which dexando in each location of the Indies Spanish grocery stores, that just Suessen NEEDED for the supply, cóforme to the capacity of each people, all the rest of us by way of composition pagassen every seventh year, from thirty to forty dollars, and for more clarity of the aforesaid, and their ease of execution, that the little stores of ordenáça señalassen that Fuessen for the supply, or the nombrassen the councils, not to innovate in what huviesse constumbre, and in these alterasse not the manner and form, which kept Havia visit: composition and pudiessen not be visited by the Councils, nor interfere in their Escrivanos q tocasse them, for what we for the qual inhibited, and mandanios, visitassen that in the cities of Lima and Mexico, the Mayors of Hearings of them, and others where huviesse Hearings,   the Judges: and in other places the

Governors, and aldermen, or their lieutenants, all liability, or their lieutenants, all around the limitation that not more than four pudiessen hazaer visits each year, consisting not that noticeable excessos huviessen, or haviendo whistleblowers, according to law, and that the grocery stores of ordenança Fuessen no preferred site or privilege to which pagassen composition, before this all just and possible Fuessen favored and preferred: and that if vtilidad enjoy this, quesiessen pay off, as fuesse voluntarily, admitiessen to composition, and Officers ordenasse to our Royal Treasury, and accountant of Auditors, which assentasse and cobrasse what resultasse desto, as a member of our Exchequer, and with particular distinction and clarity remitiesse to our Council of the Indies reason of what this valiesse each year in each Party.   And because Indian Peoples was understood, which he had many grocery stores, being prohibited by ordenças of Provinces.   We had to either go swimming, that where currently hubiesse, Fuessen admitted to copoficio in the amounts mentioned, and

where none huviesse not cosientissen put, or that they hiziesse trouble the Indians, that his tuviessen by, licensed by the Government, not the Indians taking home price, or interest in it, and that the same entendiesse in the chicha, which are allowed by the ordenças Fuessen and that those Indian Peoples of Havia not haver any puolperia of ordenança for the supply, not to be necessária vso and support for common, and everything above is executado in form it has proved more convenient, we have been noticed, and we have been approved and for good.   Sort and command, which assi keep faith and comply, without anything new to hazer while dispusieremos not something else, which is assi our will.

·          That the owners of Black quadrillas take home Varinas populated, and residence, law 27. tit. 5. Book 7.
·          That in the cities, towns, and places are made ​​Jails, Law 1. tit. 6. lib. 7.

·          The Deputy Ruler visit the prisons, and recognize the processos, law 23. tit. 6. lib. 7.

and Councils

Act first.   That elections and councils are made ​​in the Houses of City Hall, and elsewhere.

We walk to the Councils Iusticia and Cities Regiment, Villas, and Places of India, who come together to hazer councils, elections for mayors and other officials, and to treat what is appropriate for the good of the Republican whether it be in the council houses, which are devoted to this, that if penalty is elsewhere juntaren, incurred by that infringe on forfeiture of their offices, not vsar more of them, and that are not without force necessidad extraordinary Councils and citation of all the Chapter, made by the Caretaker, the qual want to scribe the Town Council haverlos cited, and be saved and assi

compliance, our Sardinia penalty, and fifty thousand maravedis for our Chamber, to every contravening vno.

Law ij.   That the Governors do not make the councils at home, or carry them military Ministers

We order to the Governors, who always do the Councils   in the houses of the City, not yours, not cause as severe haviendo nor relevant, requiring otherwise, and do not carry, nor condone, involving Ministers military or give an impression to the Chapter, for work, nor word, cause, or reason, that can move, or impede the fable to defend the people, and not put estorvo in the population.

Xxiiij Act. That during the work excuse communication with the natives.

As long as the new town residents seek just as much as possible and try to avoid communication

with the Indians, do not go to the People, or split, or fun for the land, or allow the Indians to enter the circuit of the population, until done, and start on defense, and the houses so that Quando Indians see them, they cause admiration, and understand that the Spanish assiento inhabit there, and the fear and respect, to desire their friendship, not offend.

Law xxv. Not finishing the population within the time by accident, can be extended.

If for unforeseen circumstances have occurred, villagers huvieren just turned the population in the terms contained in assiento not lost, and lose it who have spent, or built, or incur the penalty, and that will rule the earth it may extend, as the case of offereth.

Xxvj Act. Then sow the villagers, and to let their cattle in debessas, where no harm to the Indians.

Lvego, and so delay the arable land are dealt, the settlers planted all the seeds, which ultimately carried, and THEY MAY haver, that should, to be very preveidos: and for ease dipute vna perfona Governor, to deal to plant and cultivate the land of bread, and pulses, which then can help: ye the dehessa throw all the cattle, which ultimately carried, and THEY MAY together with their marks and signs, to then begin to breed and multiply; dode parts are safe, and do not do damage to lands, crops, or other things of the Indians.

Hospitals to merge under the law 2. tit. 4. lib. 1.

Act first. That cities, towns, and places of the Indies with the Coats of Arms, granted to them huvieren.

I understand consideration the good and loyal service, we have made ​​the cities, towns, and places of our West Indies, and islands adjacent, and the neighbors, individuals, and have natural and has attended the peace population. It is our willingness to grant, and grant to the said cities, towns, and places, which have as their weapons and currency indicated and especially huvieren known that Mr. Reyes received from our parents, and us, and because they concedieren our sucessores, so that they can bring and put on their Banners, Banners, Váderas, Badges, Seals, and other parties, and places that they want to, and well any, in the form and arrangement, the other cities of our kingdoms, to whom we have mercy on Weapons and Foreign Exchange.   and send to all of our kingdoms Iusticias Lordships, that being

required assi observe to do, and do not consent to disability in all or in part, the penalty of our worship, and of ten thousand maravedis for our Chamber.

Law ij. That Mexico City has the first vote and instead between New Spain.

In response to the greatness and nobility of Mexico City and therein lies to the Viceroy, Government, and Audiencia of New Spain, and was the first city populated by Christians. It is our will and desire and command that has the first vote of Cities, and Villas of New Spain, as it has in these our kingdoms the City of Burgos, and the first place, after Iusticia in the congresses, that hizieren by our command, for so he is not our intention, nor will, that can be assembled Cities and Villas India.

IIJ Act. Iusticia of Mexico that has the jurisdiction quinzeleguas ordinary in his term.

Ordain, That the Iusticia of the tegan Mexico City civil and criminal jurisdiction in the fifteen miles of the term, which are appointed, and you can see and hear in the first instance of the causes and crimes that befall him, with that appeals, which huvieren go right instead of to our audience, and Royal Chancellery, which it resides, and not know of queues, and causes touching to Indians, because our will is, it touches and belongs to the Viceroy, and Hearing in the manner prescribed, and the headers and towns, as Tezcuco, and others who are in Villages, and fall within these terms, are separated, and outside the jurisdiction of Mexico: and assimismo with all these terms are of grass common to all neighbors, residents and inhabitants of New Spain in the time which they would desembaracados, for

our laws, and is willing ordenacas, keeping the remaining fruit.

Iiij Act. That the city of Cuzco is the most principal of Peru, and have the first vote in New Castile.

It is our will and ordain, that the City of Cuzco is the most primary and first vote of all other cities, and villas, there is, and huviere throughout the province of New Castile.   and send that as principal, and first vote if you can speak, or his attorney in things, and cases that are offered, concurring with the other cities and villas of the said Province, the first and foremost, that any of them, and to be saved all honors, pre-eminences, privileges, and immunities, which is why he devieren save.

V Act. That the City of Kings will keep the exceptions and privileges granted.

The viceroys of   Peru, the Royal Court, and lusticias saved, and enforce and comply with the privileges and exceptions granted to the City of Kings, as in cótienen despechadas warrants and provisions, so that city as the governancy assiento is always higher ennobled and enlarged, according to his services rendered to our Royal Crown, and do not give rise to that about to happen to our Board of India.

Vj Act. That the Viceroys, Audiences, and governors do not give titles of Cities, and Villas.

Ordain, That for any reason, no reason the Viceroys, Audiences, Governors, Ministers and other qualesquier the Indies, than they are, give titles of Cities, Villas or to any of the People, or Places of Spanish or Indian, eximinan nor the jurisdiction of the main headers: with apercevimiento, that they will take their refidencias, because this grant and faculty must be ordered on our Board of India, and

take for zero titles, that contrary to avencion contained in this Act to qualesquier dieren People and Places: refpect and new populations, and foundations provisions store.

Vij Act.   That in large cities are not natural Lieutenants or bazendados

ORDER A Viceroys, and Judges, which by reason of not admitting Corregidores Lieutenants of large cities to the natives, or ranchers in them, observe and comply with the provisions of laws Royals, and do not consent, or allow dispensing, or tolerance any case, for the disadvantages, which reultan to the public cause, and good administration of justice.

Vivj Act.   That the Viceroys and Governors to appoint interim who serve in the offices of Cavildo.

We ordered the Viceroys, and Governors, escusen making interim appointment to the offices of City Council of Cities, by the absence of their owners.

Ix law. To avoid fires in the City of Veracruz, and other

IN very careful we have the fires in the City of Veracruz, for public reasons, there is to it, and wanting remedy in the future, it is our will that the viceroys of New Spain to take into consideration three warnings.   The first, as these legal presumpcion fire, although sometimes random, usually because hazen and cause, negligence and omission of the inhabitants, the qual comes to be more than can fault for being careless in what both agrees, that there will be good to order, that as these buildings consist of tables, the house where the fire goeth out, and the inhabitants thereof, as

who began the damage, be obliged to which succeed it, will live with carefully qual.   The second, which dipute any person, or persons, that at night they remember, keep the fire road as in many provinces and kingdoms, where this is practiced, and the buildings are of a table.   The third, that the royal houses never have to be continuous with other buildings, but separated by considerable distance, more than fifteen Passos, so that the damage does not result in third in our royal houses, and this is observed in other Citidades where contirran the same reasons.

Act x. That part of the Butchers ab.issto not supported positions to clergy or religious.

In no city, village, or location is permissible, not Reciva position to supply the Butchers, to cterigos, convents, or religios, but to lay people, and llnas that can be hard-pressed to compliance, and ugly n

year, or the time that it proves convenient to governae the Province.



Since 1928, the CIAM (International Congresses of Modern Architecture) had collected some energies hitherto scattered, holding their meetings in different cities of Europe. In 1935 it was her turn to Athens ... During the period of oppression and rejection of the profession (Architecture and Urbanism) in 1941 to 1942 the name of Athens appeared as a shield shining, and the word Charter, as a mandate to think straight.
The work of Congress in Athens formed the basis of the Charter
A mutation immense total, takes over the world: The machine civilization is anchored in the disorder, improvisation going in the rubble. And all that has lasted for a century! But a century ago that the new blood continues its upward march ... One day maybe ...
Paris, September 6. 1957 - Le Corbusier.


1.     The city is only a part of the economic, social and political constitutes the region.
2.     Juxtaposed to the economic, social to the political will, the values ​​of a psychological and physiological linked to the individual entered into the discussion concerns individual order and collective order. 
Life unfolds only in so far as matching the two contradictory principles curl human personality: the individual and the collective.
3.     These constants psychological and biological experience the influence of the environment: location and topographic, economic, and political situation. First, the geographical location and topography, the nature of the elements, water and earth, nature, soil, climate ...
4.     Second, the economic situation.
The resources of the region, natural or artificial contacts with the outside.
5.     Third, the political, administrative system.
6.     Certain circumstances have determined the character of the city throughout history: military defense, scientific discoveries, successive administrations, the progressive development of communications and transport (overland routes, river or sea , railways and air routes)
7.     The reasons which govern the development of cities are thus subject to continuous change.
8.     The advent of the era of mechanization has caused huge disruption in the behavior of men in their distribution over the earth and its activities themselves, unrestrained movement of concentration in the cities, under mechanical speeds, brutal and evolution universal unprecedented in history. The chaos has made ​​its entradla in cities.


9.     Inside the historic core of cities and in certain areas of nineteenth century industrial expansion, the population is too dense (it Ilesa to add up to a thousand or even 1500 people per hectare)
10. In congested urban areas, living conditions are dire for lack of sufficient space for housing, lack of green space available and, finally, by neglect of maintenance for buildings (operation based on speculation)
State of affairs further aggravated by the presence of a population with low living standards, unable itself take defensive measures (mortality is as high as twenty percent)
11. The growth of the city gradually devours green space, successive neighboring suburbs.
This increasing detachment from the natural elements in equal measure increases the disorder of hygiene.
12. housing constructions are designed to spread over the surface of the city, contrary to the requirements of hygiene.
13. denser neighborhoods are in disadvantaged areas (slopes misguided, areas invaded by fog or industrial gases, accessible to flooding, etc.).
14. airy constructions (houses accommodated) occupy favored areas, sheltered from harsh winds, overlooking prospective outlets safe and graceful landscape: lake, sea, mountains, etc.., and with plenty of sun exposure.
15. This partial distribution of the housing is sanctioned by use and by some municipal regulations that are justified: ZONING.
16. The buildings erected along the roads and in the vicinity of the crossings are damaging to the habitability: noise, dust and noxious gases.
17. The traditional alignment of the houses on the edge of the streets only guarantees sun exposure to a fraction of the accommodations.
18. The distribution of collective use buildings housing is dependent on the arbitrary.
19. Schools in particular are often barriers along high volume traffic and too far from home.
20. The suburbs are arranged without plan and without normal link with the city.
21. We have tried to incorporate the suburbs in the administrative field.
22. Often the suburbs are only a cluster of huts where the necessary feasibility is hardly profitable.


23. Thereafter, the districts of housing should occupy the best locations in urban space, taking advantage of the topography, taking into account the weather and having more favorable insolation and appropriate green spaces.
24. The determination of living areas should be dictated by reasons of hygiene.
25. should impose reasonable densities of room in the manner provided by the very nature of the terrain.
26. It should be noted a minimum number of hours of sun exposure for all housing.
27. should be banned alignment of houses along the roads.
28. should be taken into account the resources of modern technology to boost high buildings.
29. The high building, located at great distances from one another, must release the floor in favor of large green areas.


30. free surfaces are generally insufficient .
31. When the free surfaces have sufficient length, are often poorly distributed and are therefore not very useful for the mass of the inhabitants.
32. The peripheral location of the free surface does not lend itself to improving the living conditions in congested urban areas.
33. the rare sports facilities, in general, to deploy them in the vicinity of the users were temporarily installed in land for future residential or industrial neighborhoods.
34. The land that could be assigned to free weekly hours are often poorly connected with the city .

35. From now on, all residential district must have the necessary green space for rational management of sports and games of children, adolescents and adults.
36. The insalubrious should be demolished and replaced by green areas: with this, the neighboring districts will result sanitized.
37. The new green space should be allocated to clearly defined purposes: should contain playgrounds, schools, youth centers or buildings for community use, closely linked to housing.
38. free hours per week must be spent in places favorably prepared: parks, forests, sports fields, stadiums, beaches, etc.. 
39. parks, sports fields, stadiums, beaches, etc..
40. existing elements should be estimated: rivers, forests, hills, mountains, valleys, lake, sea, etc..
41. Workplaces and willing are not rationally within the urban complex: industry, crafts, business, administration and commerce.
42. The relationship between the room and the workplace is no longer normal routes imposes disproportionate.
43. hours - tip of transport show a critical condition.
44. Due to the lack of any program - uncontrolled growth of cities, no forecasts, land speculation, and so on. The industry is installed at random, without obeying any rules.
45. In cities, the offices have focused on business centers. These mounted in the privileged places of the city, equipped with the most comprehensive means of circulation, soon fall prey to speculation . Since these are private businesses, lack the useful organization for natural development.
46. ​​The distances between workplaces and homes should be minimized.
47. industrial sectors should be independent of the sectors of room , or other we must be separated by a green area.
48. Industrial zones are found along the railroad, the canal and the road.
49. Handicrafts, closely linked to urban life, which comes directly, you must clearly determined to occupy places inside the city.
50. business center dedicated to private management or public, must have good communications with the districts of housing, as well as with industries and handicrafts that has been in the city or nearby.


51. The current urban road network is a set of branches developed around the major roads. These last, go back in time, in Europe, far beyond the Middle Ages, and sometimes even in antiquity. 
52. Major roads were designed for the passage of pedestrians or of carriages, now no longer respond to the mechanical means of transport.
53. The dimensions of the streets, inadequate for the future, oppose the use of new mechanical speeds and steady expansion of the city.
54. The distances between the intersections of the streets are too small.
55. The width of the streets is insufficient. The attempt to widen is often an expensive and inefficient as well.
56. Given the mechanical speed, the street network is shown to be irrational, lacking in accuracy, flexibility, diversity, fitness.
57. paths luxury, representative purposes, have been or may be serious difficulties in the circulation.
58. In many cases, the rail network has become, with the extension of the city and a serious obstacle for development.
This network contains residential neighborhoods, depriving them of useful contacts with the vital elements of the city.
59. From rigorous statistics, must be made ​​useful analysis of the overall circulation in the city and its region, working to reveal what are the channels of circulation and the nature of traffic.
60. Traffic routes should be classified according to their nature and become the basis of vehicles and their speeds.
61. intense traffic crossings will be ordered as continuous circulation through changes in level. (overpasses)
62. The pedestrian must be able to follow different paths to the car.
63. The streets should be distinguished by purpose: housing streets, walking streets, transit streets and major arteries.
64. Green spaces should be insulated, in principle, cause them a wide circulation.

65. architectural values ​​should be safeguarded (single or joint municipal buildings)
66. The testimonies of the past will be safeguarded if they are expressions of an earlier culture and if they respond to a general interest ...
67. If conservation does not imply the sacrifice of people kept in unhealthy conditions.
68. If possible remedy the detriment of its presence with radical measures: for example, the deviation of elements of movement determined, or even the shift of centers hitherto regarded as immutable.
69. The destruction of slums on the outskirts of historic buildings provide an opportunity to create green space.
70. The use of past styles, aesthetic pretexts raised in new construction in historic areas, has dire consequences.
The retention of such uses and the introduction of such initiatives will not be tolerated in any way.
71. Most cities today have studied a chaotic picture.   These cities do not respond in any way to your destination, you should be to meet basic needs, biological and psychological, of its population.
72. This situation reveals, from the beginning of the machine age, incessant overlapping private interests.
73. Violence by private interests a disastrous causes the imbalance between the pressure of economic forces on the one hand, and administrative control weakness and impotence of social solidarity, on the other.
74. Although cities are in constant state of transformation, its development targets without precision and control, and without taking into account the principles of contemporary urbanism, developed in the technical qualifications.
75. The city must ensure, at the spiritual and material, individual liberty and the benefits of collective action.
76. dimensions operation to all things urban in the device can only be governed by the scale of man.
77. The keys to planning are contained in the following four functions: living, working, recreation, CIRCULAR.
78. plans determine the structure of each of the sectors assigned to the four key functions and indicate their respective location in the set. 
79. The cycle of daily functions, live, work and recreate, (recovery) will be regulated by the planning within the strictest economy of time.  The house is considered the heart of urban concerns and the point binding of all sizes.
80. The new mechanical speeds have transformed the urban environment by introducing into it a permanent danger by causing gridlock and paralysis of communications and jeopardizing hygiene.
81. We must review the principle of urban and suburban traffic. You have to make a classification of the available speeds. zoning reform to harmonize the key functions of the city will create natural links between them for strengthening which shall provide a rational network of large arteries.
82. the town planning is a science of three dimensions , not just two. With the intervention of the element height will solve the modern movement and leisure by exploiting the gaps thus created.
83. The city must be studied within the whole of its region of influence.  Just Municipal Plan will be replaced by a regional plan.  He will limit the function of the radius agglomeration of economic action.
84. The city, defined herein as a functional unit, should grow harmoniously in each of its parts, having spaces in which linkages can register, balanced, stages of development.
85. It is most imperative that each city set its agenda, enacting laws that allow its implementation.
86. The program should be developed from rigorous analysis by specialists. You must provide the steps in space and time.
Should unite in a rich natural resource agreement, the topography of the whole, economic data, sociological needs and spiritual values.
87. For the architect, busy here in town planning tasks, the measuring instrument is the human scale.
88. The initial core planning cell is a room (a home) and its insertion in a group that forms a housing unit of effective size.
89. From this unit - housing will be established in urban space the relations between the room, workplaces and facilities devoted to the free hours.
90. To resolve this great task is essential to use the resources of modern technology. This, with the help of his specialties, support the art of building with all the assurances of science and enrich the inventions and resources of the ages. 
91. The course of events will be influenced primarily by political, social and economic ...
92. And it is here that ultimately intervene architecture.
93. The scale of the work to be undertaken urgently to the management of cities and on the other hand, the state infinitely fragmented land ownership, are two conflicting realities.
94. The dangerous contradiction observed here raises one of the most dangerous issues of our time: the urge to regulate, through a legal means available to all land useful for balancing the vital needs of the individual in harmony with the collective needs .  
95. The private interest is subject to the collective interest.

The equipment of a country requires the close relationship of architecture to the overall economy.  The notion of <rendimiento> introduced as an axiom of modern life, in no way implies the maximum commercial gain if not a fully sufficient production to meet human needs .
The real yield is the result of rationalization and standardization applied with flexibility to both the architectural plans as to industrial methods of execution.
Urbanism is the management of sites and premises to be harboring various development of material life, emotional and spiritual in all its forms, individual or collective. It covers both urban areas and rural clusters.
Is by its very essence, of a functional. The three key functions for the realization of which should ensure a planning are: 1. - Dwelling, 2. - Work, 3. - Recreation.
Its objects are: a) The land use: b) The organization of traffic, c) The law (ordinance)
The chaotic land fragmentation, the result of divisions, sales and speculation should be replaced by a basic economics of reunification.
It is essential that architects have an influence on public opinion and disclosed to it the means and resources of the new architecture.
The academic teaching perverted public taste and is very often not even the real problems arise from the room. Public opinion is misinformed, and users in general or just get nothing but make bad housing desires.
So this house has long been excluded from the main concerns of the architect.
A handful of elementary truths, taught in elementary school, could form the basis of domestic education.
The consequence of this teaching would be a few generations they would have a sound understanding of the home.